NOTE: Despite recent changes to the IHR regarding yellow fever vaccine boosters, it is uncertain whether all countries with yellow fever vaccination requirements will fully adopt this change. Even if countries change their official policies to extend the validity of the ICVP for 10 years to the life of the vaccinated person, there is no guarantee that all national border guards will be aware or able to enforce such a policy change. CDCs receive information from WHO on countries` official entry requirements annually. WHO is unlikely to ask countries about eligibility requirements for yellow fever vaccine boosters in annual questionnaires, as countries are expected to comply with the amended IHR. This could leave a gap in the precise information published on the conditions of access to yellow fever vaccine boosters for some countries in the foreseeable future. Past experience has shown that the information provided by consulates and embassies on vaccination needs is often incorrect. Therefore, suppliers and travellers should not rely solely on this information to determine current yellow fever vaccination requirements for certain destinations. With the limitations described above, readers should refer to the online version of this book (www.cdc.gov/yellowbook) and the CDC Travelers` Health (www.cdc.gov/travel) website for all updates to entry requirements reported in countries since the publication of this edition. Yellow fever 1 The official WHO list of countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission is provided in Table 4-23. Proof of yellow fever vaccination should only be required if you are travelling from a WHO listed country, unless otherwise specified. The following countries, which contain only areas with low potential for exposure to yellow fever virus, are not on the WHO list: Eritrea, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia. 2 An elevation of 2,300 m is equivalent to 7,546 ft.
Ultimately, the physician`s decision whether or not to vaccinate a traveller must take into account the traveller`s risk of becoming infected with yellow fever virus, entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious adverse events following yellow fever vaccination (such as age and immune status). For an in-depth discussion of yellow fever and vaccination guidelines, see Chapter 4, Yellow Fever. A yellow fever vaccination certificate is not required for this country. Yellow fever maps 1 This map is an updated version of the 2010 map produced by the WHO Informal Working Group on Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever. 2 Yellow fever (YF) vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is little risk of exposure to yellow fever virus. However, vaccination may be considered for a small subset of travellers to these areas who are at increased risk of exposure to yellow fever virus due to prolonged travel, high exposure to mosquitoes, or inability to avoid mosquito bites. When vaccinating a traveller, the risk of contracting yellow fever virus, entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious vaccine-related side effects (such as age or immune status) should be considered. Revaccination against yellow fever was previously required by some countries at 10-year intervals in order to comply with the International Health Regulations (IHR). In 2014, the World Health Assembly (WHO) adopted the recommendation to amend the IHR by removing the 10-year booster dose requirement and setting a 2-year transition period for this change. Therefore, as of 11 July 2016, a completed International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) is valid for the life of the vaccinated person. In addition, countries cannot require proof of revaccination (booster vaccination) against yellow fever as a condition of entry, even if the last vaccination was >10 years ago.
In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued a new recommendation in 2015 that 1 dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is suitable for most travellers. The recommendation also identifies specific groups of travellers who should receive additional doses and others for whom additional doses may be considered. For more information, see Chapter 4, Yellow Fever. The most up-to-date information on yellow fever vaccine boosters is available on the CDC Travelers` Health website or in the specific publication on the ACIP website (www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6423.pdf). On the following pages, you will find country-specific information on vaccination requirements and recommendations for yellow fever (Table 2-06) as well as information on malaria transmission and recommendations for prophylaxis. National maps of malaria transmission areas, national maps with yellow fever vaccination recommendations, and a reference map of China are included to facilitate interpretation of the information. The information was correct at the time of publication; However, this information may change at any time due to changes in disease transmission or, in the case of yellow fever, changes in entry requirements. Updated information reflecting changes since publication can be found in the online version of this book (www.cdc.gov/yellowbook) and on the CDC Travelers` Health (www.cdc.gov/travel) website. General recommendations for other vaccines to consider during the pre-travel consultation can be found on the CDC Travelers` Health (www.cdc.gov/travel) website. Cases of dengue, transmitted by mosquitoes, have been reported.
You should take measures to avoid mosquito bites. Although bedbugs do not carry diseases, they are a nuisance. On our information page to avoid insect bites, you will find some simple tips to avoid them. For more information about bed bugs, see Bed bugs. Check the latest country-specific health recommendations from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website at least 8 weeks before your trip. Each country-specific page contains information on vaccination recommendations, current health risks or outbreaks, as well as fact sheets on how to stay healthy abroad. Instructions are also available from the NHS (Scotland) on the FitForTravel website. Recommended for most travelers, especially those staying with friends or relatives or visiting smaller towns or rural areas. If you are leaving port and planning a sea trip, inform a third party of where you will be staying in case of an emergency.
Pirates attacked in nearby seas.